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Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas
A research resource for the nuclear receptor signaling community
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AR
Overview
Synonyms
AIS ; AR ; AW320017 ; Andr ; Ar ; DHTR ; HUMARA ; HYSP1 ; KD ; NR3C4 ; SBMA ; SMAX1 ; TFM ; Tfm ; androgen nuclear receptor variant 2 ; androgen receptor (Testicular feminization), same as Tfm ; androgen receptor (dihydrotestosterone receptor; testicular feminization; spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy; Kennedy disease) ; dihydrotestosterone receptor ; nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 4 ; testicular feminization
NURSA Name
Androgen receptor
Official Symbol
AR
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Description
The AR is an androgen-activated steroid receptor member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors. Signaling by the androgen receptor plays a key role in proper development and function of male reproductive organs. AR is expressed at low to moderate levels in tissues in all major physiological systems (central nervous system (CNS), endocrine, metabolic, gastrointestinal, immune, reproductive, cardiovascular, respiratory and structural), with peaks of expression in the epididymis, ovary, uterus, prostate, vas deferens, adrenal gland, kidney and skeletal muscle. AR dysfunction has been associated with cancer (prostate cancer, breast cancer (male), ovarian cancer, colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, testicular cancer), cardiovascular defects (coronary artery disease), immune diseases (type I diabetes, diabetic retinopathy), metabolic disorders (obesity, androgen insensitivity syndrome, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, type II diabetes), neurological conditions (Alzheimer's disease, migraine), psychiatric disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, major depressive disorder/depression, schizophrenia), reproductive conditions (azoospermia, endometriosis, fertility) developmental (hypospadias) and other diseases (spinal and bulbar atrophy of Kennedy). Targeted deletion (knockout) of AR results in disruption of development (limbs, digital and tail), behavioral, digestive and alimentary function, the immune system, reproduction, the renal/urinary system, homeostasis and metabolism, behavioral and neurological function and the cardiovascular system.
Original References:
Lubahn DB, Joseph DR, Sar M, Tan J, Higgs HN, Larson RE, French FS and Wilson EM (1988) The human androgen receptor: complementary deoxyribonucleic acid cloning, sequence analysis and gene expression in prostate. Mol. Endocrinol. 2 1265-75 View Abstract | View PubMed
Chang CS, Kokontis J and Liao ST (1988) Molecular cloning of human and rat complementary DNA encoding androgen receptors. Science 240 324-6 View Abstract | View PubMed
Lubahn DB, Joseph DR, Sullivan PM, Willard HF, French FS and Wilson EM (1988) Cloning of human androgen receptor complementary DNA and localization to the X chromosome. Science 240 327-30 View Abstract | View PubMed
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